|Photos from Memento 2001|
|2.2 THE FIRST DEPORTATION PERIOD 1941–1948|
|2.3 THE SECOND DEPORTATION PERIOD 1948–1958|
|2.4 BACK AT HOMELAND|
|4.2 DOCUMENTS ON THE FATE OF DEPORTEES FROM KGB CASE FILES|
4.2. DOCUMENTS ON THE FATE OF DEPORTEES FROM KGB CASE FILES
4.1. GENERAL DOCUMENTS
Copies of the documents used in Chapter 1.1, also documents made little use of or not at all used are partially given below. In this Chapter references to the documents of "Time line" Chapter 1.1 are marked accordingly D.1, D.12 etc. The expression "general documents" is used as a large amount of people; categories of persons or even nations are concerned. As a rule these documents are not found in the personal files of the repressed.
ANTI-SOVIET ELEMENT OF SEVERAL NATIONS
The given selection of the copies of the documents assures that deportation from Estonia on 14 June 1941 formed a small part of the large-scale mass event, which took place mainly during the period between May and August 1941. The preparations had started long before. The title of this mass event was "About the Deportation of the Socially Alien Element from the Baltic Republics, Western Ukraine, Western Byelorussia and Moldova" and it concerned at least 85,716 deported forced settlers as family members [D.11 and D.27, see Ch.1.1.] plus heads of the families from Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia with the total number of 14,532 persons either to be arrested or registered at the Security Authorities. Additionally the criminal element and prostitutes were needed to endanger the reputation of the anti-Soviet element. Beria had a plan to arrest 8000 people in the Moldavian SSR under the title "heads of the deported families [D.17]. 37,482, the number of the family members deported from Western-Ukraine and Western-Byelorussia is included in the above given number 85,76, but we do not know the number of the heads of the families belonging to them.
According to the joint decision of the Party and the government [D.11] of 14 May 1941 the arrested heads of the families belonged to the people to be deported. Therefore the mass event of Moscow concerned totally more than 113 thousand people (85 715+14532 +4953+8000). Estonia formed about 10% of this number.
PREPARATIONS FOR THE MASS EVENT IN 1941
Large-scale preparation for "perfect" arrangement of the deportation on 14 June 1941 started with the generalisation of the mass repression experiences in 1920-ies and 1930-ies, see Ch. 1.1., documents D.1-D.5. Concrete preparation started just after the signing the secret protocols of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in Moscow on 23 Aug. 1939 and after the occupation of the western border of the USSR from the Gulf of Finland to the Black Sea listed in the title of the mass event. Actually occupation of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania by the Red Army took place according to the agreements of the bases drawn in Sept.-Oct. 1939. The Republic of Estonia was totally occupied on 17 June 1940: At the same time with the occupation of the Baltic States the Red Army attacked Poland (17 Sept.1999 and conquered Western-Byelorussia and Western Ukraine. On 28 June 1940 the Red Army occupied Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina.
Sovietisation, political repression and ethnical purification stare on the occupied territories. The Polish residents were deported to Siberia. Ethnic purification started in 1939 and it continued also during the deportation in 1941. People belonging to category 7 were to be deported in 1941, i.e. " refugees from the former Poland who had refused to accept the Soviet citizenship" [D.11]. The family members of the earlier shot or arrested people were also to be deported in 1941. The first known documentally fixed execution by a Security Institution in Estonia took place on 6 January 1941. The first deportations took place in July 1940.
According to statistics among 34,710 political prisoners (published in two Name books compiled by the ERPRB; Book 3 is being compiled) there were 927 arrested in 190 and 5,732 Estonian citizens arrested in 1941. The most frequent accusation paragraphs of the arrested in 1940 and 1941 (1,993 occasions) were §58-10 (1910), §58-4 (1206), §58-11 (548), §58-2 (423), §58-1a-1b (396), §58-6 (209) etc.*
* Political Arrests in Estonia. Volume 2. Compiled by L. Õispuu. Tallinn, 1998. 872 p., Tables 3.1. and 3.6.
The families sentenced guilty under all these paragraphs belonged to deportation on the basis of the joint decision of the party and government of 14 May 1941. [D.11] Many of them were arrested after 14 June 1941, but even they belong to the category of the joint decision people. [D.11] and to the number 4,665 of the people registered for arrest. [D.12] In document D.12 the people registered as anti-Soviet heads of the families were categorised as follows: 1st category – 1470, 2nd - 670, 3rd - 2100 and 4th - 425. L. Beria had established the order of categorising the deported in 1941 into the heads of the families, who were sent to prison camps after arrest and the family members, who were sent out as forced settlers into several republics, krays and oblasts of the USSR. [D.17] In his report to Molotov and Beria on 17 June 1941 V. Merkulov; the USSR State Security Peoples Commissar summed up the heads of the families to be deported and the deported family members under the common title "the repressed". [D.22]
However, the concrete preparations for deportation in 1941 were: murders of the heads of the families and the family members, "official executions", arrests, search for anti-Soviet element and compilation of the lists according to categories preceded the compilation of D.11 and D.12; preparation of accommodation places of the forced labourers (actually slaves) in the faraway regions of Russia; distribution of the soon arriving forced labourers (both arrested and deported) according to the territories and establishments. Preparation for transport of more than one hundred thousand people (hidden from the public and concentrated) from their homes to deportation places located in he distance of thousands of kilometres.
COLLABORANTS OF THE REPRESSION BY OCCUPANTS
The ESSR CPC the leadership of the Chairman and Vice-Chairman on 1 July 1941 played an important role at supporting the repressors. B. Kumm (PCIA, later PCSS) and A. Murro (PCIA) worked as peoples' commissars of the ESSR. Gulst, Venjamin Naumi's son, Murro, Andrei Andrei's son and Hanson, Karl Villem's son were Vice peoples' commissars of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. 29 confirmed names of the heads and vice-heads of the PCIA departments on 20 Sept. 1940 are on the copy of the document given below. Among them there were also security staff. It is known that the matter concerning deportation was never mentioned at the meetings of the ESSR CPC. The USSR PCSS dictated all the orders and the Estonian peoples' commissars and to fulfil them dutifully and so they did. We can resent only an order concerning the redistribution of the property left behind of 18 June 1941 by O. Sepre, Substitute to Chairman of the ESSR CPC.
RAILWAY TRANSPORT OF THE DEPORTEES
The two copies of the documents reveal the loading off place names of the echelons loaded with the deportees from Estonia to Russia and the planned number of the people. (See also the texts of D.20 and D.21 and the corresponding drawings in Chapter 2.2):
The first echelons in the direction of Russia were sent out on 16 June 1941. The heads of the families were in A-railway cars and the family members in B-cars. At 2.30 on 13 June 1941 a telegram determining the numbers of the deportees from the Baltic states and the loading off station of the echelons in Russia arrived at Riga from Moscow. The echelons with the deportees were sent to Russia via Narva and Irboska. 3 echelons with the total number of 148 railway cars were sent via Narva and 7 echelons with the total number of 342 cars were sent via Irboska Not all the 490 cars were loaded with the deported people.
Railway cars with the larger packages, shop-cars and also cars for the emergency and convoy staff were also included. Railway transport of the deportees was arranged according to the instruction "Guidelines to the heads of the echelons for deportation of the arrested from the Baltic states". The echelons of the deported were sent off from Estonia as low speed goods' trains. In the certificates of delivery the goods were marked in the following way: People.
For example: "PCSS transport nr. ...; ... people". The cost of transport had been calculated, e.g. 96,435 roubles for transportation of people by an echelon consisting of 54 railway cars from Tallinn to the distance of 1,600 km. Data from the book "A Year of Suffering of the Estonian People. Complete Work."-Tallinn; Eesti Kirjastus, 1943, 839 p. The average number of people in a car was 21.68 persons according to the deportees' lists of 60 cars found in the Archives [BESA MIA f. 2-MO, archival list1, depository unit 1] Those people were carried to Kirov Oblast, see text in Ch. 2.2.
REPRESSION CONTINUED AFTER THE WAR
All the families of the arrested and executed could not be deported before the war. Deportation continued again just after the war. Already on 15 Aug. 1945 mass deportation of Germans belonging to the 6th category [D.11] according to the joint decision of the party and the government took place. Jehova's witnesses as members of active counterrevolutionary organisations and their family members were to be arrested and deported according to the joint decision as people of the 1st and 5th category. Imprisonment of individual Jehova's witnesses took place in 1948 – 195061 people were imprisoned on 13 Feb. 1951 and mass deportation of family members and individuals took place on 1 April 1951. [S. Silliksaar. Sinasilmitsi Siberiga. Tallinn-Võru, 2001, 288 p.]. Deportation of the families and family groups of the political "criminals" took place continually during the interim years from 1945 until 1953. The invalidation time of the joint decision of the USSR C(b)P and the USSR CPC of 14 May 1941 is not known to us.
Short summary of the joint decision No 1299-526 cc of the Party and the Government of 14 May 1941 [ERAF f. 17/2, n.1, s.-ü. 306, p. 21]. See text Ch. 1.1., document D.11.
Report on anti-soviet and socially alien element, registered at the Peoples Commissariat for State Security of the Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR and Estonian SSR in May-June 1941. See text Ch. 1.1.D.12.
The USSR PCI "Plan of Methods on step by step distribution and order of work of the special contingent deported from the Lithuanian SSR, Estonian SSR and Moldavian SSR". 1st page of the document with the confirmation by L. Beria of 14 June 1941. See text D.17. This document is called shortly "Beria's plan of methods".
The 2nd page of the document on the previous page. Distribution of 46,557 family members to be deported and (see previous page) 22, 885 family members to be deported was planned according to it. D.17.
The 4th page of "Beria's plan of methods" given on the previous pages: PCIA local authorities are responsible for food, stages; transportation costs and work. D.17.
On the last page of Beria's methods there are conformations of 11 June 1941 and the USSR PCSS and PCIA ice peoples' commissars. Chief of the USSR PCIA's GULAG has noted as a compiler. D.17.
Protocol of the EC(b)P CC of 12 Sept. 1940, an excerpt on 2 pages. The main points: confirmation of a commission of 2 members of the Central Committee and 12 secretaries of the party committees of the counties. The protocol was signed by K. Säre the 1st Secretary of the EC(b)P CC. BESA f.1., archival list 1, depository unit 2, sheet 6 and 7.
The secretaries of the ELCYO town and county committees (before the war) and 4 secretaries of the ELCYO CC. BESA f. 1, archival list 1, depository unit 249, sheet 1 and the upper part of sheet 2.
See the text on the last, the 4th age of the copy of the document. The list of the leaders of the ESSR PCIA at the meeting of the Bureau [BESA f. 1, archival list 4, depository unit. 1, sheet 8].
The 2nd page of the document on the previous page [BESA f. 1, archival list 4, depository unit. 1, sheet 9].
Protocol of 20 Sept. 1940 of the EC(b)P CC Bureau. Appointment of the leaders of the ESSR PCIA was on the agenda. B. Kumm presented it. Also security staff belongs to the list of 29 people as the ESSR PCSS was separated from the staff of the ESSR PCIA, on 26 March 1941, see D.8. The 4th page of the document with the signature of N. Karotamm, the EC(b)P CC Secretary [ERAF f. 1, archival list 4, depository unit 1, sheet 11].
See the text on the next page.
A list of the ESSR CPC Chairman 2 Vice-Chairmen and 15 peoples' commissars on 1 July 1941 (the 1st and the 3d page of the 3 pages are given here. Vice peoples' commissars are listed under 1-24 on the 2nd page). A. Resev, Head of the Department of the EC(b) P CC has signed the list on 23 Sept. 1943 in the rear of the USSR. Amendments made in ink date back to Dec 1943 [ERAF, f. 1, archival list 1, depository unit 251, sheets 1 and 3].
The lists of communists of the ESSR PCIA and the Prosecutor's Office during 1940-1941. [ERAF f. 2, archival list 1, depository unit 146, sheets 44 and 47]
Testimony of the USSR PCIA GULAG Chief of 28 Sept. 1941 on the number of the arrived deported forced settlers from Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Moldavia, Ukraine and the western oblasts of Byelorussia. Totally 85,716 people. Their distribution into 7 republics, krays and oblasts. The data concerning Estonia were incorrectly too small. D.27.
The planned preliminary distribution of 51,402 people or special contingent to faraway regions by the USSR and PCIA GULAG Chief. These people had to come from Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia and Moldavia. 1 republic and 6 krays and oblasts were marked as future places of arrest. Also the names of the regions and possibilities to work were written down. [Sabbo 1996, p. 794 and 795, doc. 270]. June 1941. Actually these plans changed.
The text is on the next page. See also D.18.
The total sum of the joint budget of the peoples commissars of the USSR Internal Affairs and the State Security for resettlement of 8,500 people from the territories of the Baltic states and Moldavia was 18,500 000 roubles. June 1941. D.18.
A testimony of the USSR PCIA GULAG Chief to the 3rd government of the USSR CSS on the place names of loading off of the echelons from Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Only 4 echelon numbers directed from Estonia to Novosibirsk Oblast were marked on this document. See also texts of D.20 and D.21.
Telegram sent from Moscow to Riga on 13 July 1941 on the number of the deported from the Estonian SSR with the place names of loading off stations (numbers given separately for every station). So the planned number of the deported from Estonia was 11,102 people with 472 criminals. Table from the book "A Year of Suffering of the Estonian People. Complete Works."
See text on the next page and D.23.
Order of Oskar Sepre, the ESSR CPC Vice-Chairman of 18 June 1941 on the redistribution of he property left behind by the deported. Attention should be drawn to Point 5 prescribing the correct and fair giving of the sums from the redistribution to the owners of the property. See text of D.23.
A letter of the USSR PCIA GULAG Chief to the 1st special department of the same peoples' commissariat on fulfilment of Beria's orders: accommodation of the deportees from Ukraine, the western oblasts of Byelorussia, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania and Moldavia during May and June 1941. [Sabbo 1996, p. 793.]
See text on the 4th page of the document and D.26. The number of deportees located in the regions of Kirov Oblast on 6 Sept. 1941.
See the text on the last page and D.26. The number of deportees located in the regions of Kirov Oblast on 6 June 1941 and their national composition. Places of work.
See the text on the last page of the document and D.26. About the living conditions of the deportees from Estonia: 20 people are living in summer rooms; people are living in barracks, private houses and communal houses. There were 90 applications for getting winter clothes and a wish to put together the separated families.
A letter of the USSR PCIA Kirov Oblast local authority to the USSR PCIA Vice peoples' commissar on the distribution of the deportees in September 1941. Totally 2,049 deportees from the Estonian SSR arrived at Kirov Oblast. D.26
A letter of Nikiforov, the ESSR Assistant Prosecutor of Special Matters to the USSR Assistant Prosecutor of 24 February 1947 with the recommendation to send the heads of the families, who had been liberated from the camps and came to Estonia, to deportation in Russia to their families. [Sabbo 1996, p. 822]
The ESSR Prosecutor's Office continued its antihuman activities in 1947 during the mass operation against the deportees in 1941 recommending not to let them back to Estonia even if the head of the family stayed alive and liberated from prison camp. The second page of the previous page.